Drosophila Whole Genome Sequencing

Insects are important biological and genetic resources, and sequencing of insect genomes will promote the progress of entomology and lead biological science into a new era. And insect genome sequencing often faces assembly difficulties due to repetitive sequences and heterozygosity. High quality whole genome is the premise of exploring genome function and systematic evolution.

CD BioSciences provides whole genome sequencing services and phylogenetic analysis for a variety of insects. Based on years of experience in insect research, we have developed assembly and annotation algorithms for short-read sequencing and medium-length reads to address insect species with reference genomes and those lacking annotated references, providing a comprehensive solution for whole-genome sequencing of various pests, resource insects, invasive insects, social insects, etc.

Simplified arthropod phylogeny and cricket genomesFig.1 Simplified arthropod phylogeny and cricket genomes (Almudi et al, 2020; Ylla, et al, 2021)
Service Workflow

Workflow of WGS

  • Sample purification and processing

    To reduce the effect of insect heterozygosity, we offer a sample purification service. Nearly pure individuals are obtained by multigenerational inbreeding. We also support the acquisition of haploid males (e.g., Hymenoptera).

  • Genome assembly

    We recommend mapping assemblies for species where high-quality reference genomes exist. For genomes that can only be assembled de novo, we apply a variety of algorithms, including advanced algorithms for medium-length and short-read fragments, reducing ambiguity due to repetitive sequences.

  • Raw data curation and assembly quality assessment

    N50 length statistics, conserved core gene ratio and completeness

  • Reference genome alignment and annotation statistics

    Genome structure annotation (protein-coding genes, repetitive sequences, non-coding RNAs, etc.) and genome function annotation (based on sequence similarity)

  • Other analysis services (optional)
    • Intra- or inter-spectrum-based analysis
    • Lineage-based ecological and evolutionary modeling analysis
    • Species homozygosity analysis
    • Functional analysis of candidate genes and enrichment analysis of pathways (e.g., vector transmission, immunity, toxins, metamorphosis, adaptation, parasitism, chemosensory and other physiological processes)
    • Dynamic detection and analysis of transposable element sequences
    • Microsatellite DNA analysis
    • Identification of regulatory elements, such as transcription factor binding sites
    • Detection of microRNA in genomic sequences
    • Identify methylation signal analysis and epigenetic control of the genome. Methylation signals are not observed in every insect, and DNA methylation appears to be lost in Diptera species

Our Services

  • Drosophila Comparative Genomics
    The vast quantity of data produced in comparative genomics necessitates the utilization of robust bioinformatics tools to analyze and distill pertinent information in a systematic manner. At CD BioSciences, we have developed a proprietary computational development platform. This platform has been instrumental in creating multiple computational methodologies, specifically designed to minimize the occurrence of false-positive predictions.
  • Drosophila Genome-Wide Association Study
    At CD BioSciences, we utilize advanced techniques such as next-generation sequencing (NGS), genotyping, and genomic knowledge to deliver global Drosophila Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) services. This robust approach accelerates comprehensive genomic studies, elucidating disease incidence, evaluating population genetics, and resolving complex traits.


  • Derivative developmental biology
  • Social ecology
  • Phylogenetics
  • Biological control
  • Resource insect breeding

Why Choose us?

CD BioSciences is committed to providing our customers with quality whole genome sequencing and analysis services. Our innovative technology coupled with years of experience in insect research allows us to handle your project and save you time and effort. Simply offer us with the details of your project and we provide complete genome files and visual analysis results, with 24-hour online technical support to answer your questions continuously. Our services do not stop there. If you are interested in or have any question, please feel free to contact us.


  1. Li F, et al. (2019). Insect genomes: progress and challenges. Insect Mol Biol. 28: 739-758.
  2. Almudi I, et al. (2020). Genomic adaptations to aquatic and aerial life in mayflies and the origin of insect wings. Nat Commun. 11, 2631.
  3. Ylla G, et al. (2021). Insights into the genomic evolution of insects from cricket genomes. Commun Biol. 4, 733.

For research use only. Not intended for any clinical use.

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