Drosophila Optogenetic Excitation/Inhibition

Optogenetics is currently a popular technique for precise control in Drosophila research. It is used not only to study neurochemistry and neuropathic disease mechanisms, but also has tremendous advantages in the study of cell biology and homeostatic homeostasis in vivo. Through genetic engineering, proteins (or subunits) of interest are expressed in fusion with light-induced protein pumps to form a light-driven/repressed modular system that manipulates protein localization or oligomerization, as well as neuronal depolarization and hyperpolarization, to precisely and reversibly control the activation and repression of individual neurons.

CD BioSciences utilizes a group of skilled and dedicated scientists to provide our customers with fast, reversible, easily parameterized and applicable optogenetic excitation/inhibition service. Our standardized optogenetic construction platform and evaluation system minimizes the time and effort of our clients' studies. We are equipped with advanced optogenetic imaging equipment to provide our customers with a total solution for Drosophila optogenetic studies.

Optogenetic activation, inhibition and dual system

Fig.1 Optogenetic activation, inhibition and dual system (Hernández-Candia CN et al. 2019, Li X et al. 2020)

Our Service

Optogenetic techniques use genetically encoded light-gated ion channels to reversibly manipulate the excitability of neurons. Optogenetic inhibition generally inhibits action potentials by hyperpolarizing cells via chloride and proton pumps. Strategies and systems for optogenetic activation are somewhat richer and can activate not only neuronal cellular action potentials but also directional movement (e.g., membrane localization) and oligomerization of proteins for the study of signal biology and cellular homeostasis, among others.

CD BioSciences offers a wide selection of photosensitive protein pumps (excitation and inhibition), custom transgenic Drosophila (e.g., nervous system) or cell lines, and downstream optical experimental analysis services based on your experimental characteristics (e.g., target proteins or signaling pathways, duration, color of light, site of action, etc.). We are accelerating our customers' cutting-edge research in Drosophila neuroscience and cell biology.

Inhibitory proteins Descriptions
NpHR Halorhodopsins, light-driven inward chloride pump
Response wavelength: 589 nm
eNpHR 3.0 NpHR variant, improved membrane targeting
Response wavelength: 589 nm
Arch Archaerhodopsins, light-driven outward proton pump
Response wavelength: 566 nm
Mac Leptosphaeria rhodopsins, light-driven outward proton pump
Response wavelength: 540 nm

Activated proteins


ChR2 Channelrhodopsins, widely used protein
Excitation wavelength: 470 nm
C1V1 Channelrhodopsins
Excitation wavelength: 540 nm
GtACR Chloride-conducting channel
Excitation wavelength: 470 nm
CRY2/CIB1 System Heterodimerization, for control of cell signaling and protein-protein interactions, widely used in Drosophila
Excitation wavelength: 450 nm
PhytochromeB/PIF System Heterodimerization and dissociation, for control of cell signaling and protein-protein interactions
Excitation wavelength: 660 nm
Reversion wavelength: 740 nm
Dronpa145K/N Heterodimerization and dissociation, for control of cell signaling and protein-protein interactions
Excitation wavelength: 500 nm
Reversion wavelength: 400 nm

Service Features

  • Manipulation of individual neurons or cell populations
  • Digital conditions allow manual control of effects and timing
  • Reversible manipulation
  • Achieves millisecond resolution

Why CD BioSciences?

Why choose us of Drosophila Optogenetic Excitation/Inhibition - CD BioSciences

CD BioSciences has been pioneering bioscience research in the field of Drosophila. Optogenetics is an emerging technology in Drosophila research, and our professional scientists focus on cutting-edge technologies to provide satisfactory overall optogenetics services to help our clients achieve more precise and detailed research objectives in neuroscience and cell biology. There are no limitations of our service. If you need any further information or have any question, please feel free to contact us.


  • Ordaz J, et al. (2017). Optogenetics and its application in neural degeneration and regeneration. Neural Regeneration Research. 12(8), 1197.
  • Hernández-Candia CN, et al. (2019). Advances in optogenetic regulation of gene expression in mammalian cells using cryptochrome 2 (CRY2). Methods. 164, 81-90.
  • Li X, et al. (2020). Light Modulation of Brain and Development of Relevant Equipment. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease. 74(1): 29-41.

For research use only. Not intended for any clinical use.

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